Name two antibodies that are associated with poor fetal outcomes in the offspring of women with lupus.
- Anti-Ro (SSA) antibodies
- Antiphospholipid antibodies
Anti-Ro antibodies in the mother are associated with a 5% risk of neonatal lupus, which consists of a rash and/or complete heart block in the offspring. About 2% of the offspring of Ro-positive women will have complete heart block. 50% of those offspring will require a permanent pacemaker.
Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with a risk of spontaneous abortion due to placental infarction.